The first known aboveground railway was built between the mines and harbour in Höganäs. The rails were made of wood, later the top was reinforced with flat iron, and the cars pulled by horses.
The first royal permit to build a public railway issued, but due to lack of money never used.
During the middle of the 1800's horsedrawn railways to connect ferries on lakes became common, mostly to get ore or wood products to harbours.
The first public transport railway built between the lake Fryken and the river Klarälven, a distance of 8 km. Rails of iron, to begin with the cars were pulled by horses. A steam engine (the second to be built in Sweden) put in service in 1856. The line abandoned in 1871.
The first steam engine built in Sweden, intended for Norberg's railway, is built by Munktell's.
Munktell's build the second Swedish steam engine, Fryckstad, the oldest that is preserved.
Coaches for SJ are ordered from Germany, 1:st and 2:nd class only, as well as three types of freight cars: Boxcars, open grain cars and open lumber cars.
The first railways intended for steam locomotives from the beginning inaugurated: Írebro-Nora, 30 km; (private), Gothenburg-Jonsered, 10 km and Malmo-Lund 15 km (both state owned). Köping-Hults railway and Norberg's railway were also partly finished in 1856.
For the state owned lines six 1B locos with 2-axle tenders, purchased from England, designated class B. 45 more purchased 1856-73, both imported and locally built.
Most steam locomotives purchased from England, but during the 1860's other Swedish companies start building them. About 10 Swedish companies have built steamers in significant numbers.
The first coaches replaces freight cars for 3:rd class service.
The first railway station in Stockholm finished.
The first of the five state owned mainlines which were decided on in 1954, the West mainline, Stockholm-Gothenburg, 600 km, opened. Travel time 14 hours. Smaller railways were supposed to be privately or regionally owned. These are the other mainlines: 32 1A1 express trains locos with 2-axle tenders purchased, some from England, some locally built.
SJ builds coaches in Sweden, but has to continue importing for 15 more years.
Freight cars are built in Sweden: livestock, ore, coal and lime. Chassis are mostly wood.
The first purpose built freight engines purchased. 14 + 51 engines of type C designated purchased from 1863-74.
Heating of 1:st class coaches with hot sand introduced.
Steam heat in use.
The connection through Stockholm built.
The first 1:st and 2:nd class coaches in night train service get toilets.
SJ starts designing steam locos. Some built in Germany, from 1876 also in Sweden.
4-axle bogie coaches imported from Denmark. It's only 8.4 m long, which isn't much more than the 2-axle coaches.
For the first time, clocks all over Sweden show the same time.
SJ purchases a private railway for the first time.
Refrigerated cars introduced.
A north state mainline Storvik-Ange-Storlien finished.
Vacuum brakes introduced on passenger trains.
An English company builds the iron ore line in the north from Gällivare to Lulea.
SJ gets their first freight cars with all iron chassis.
Sleepers for 1:st and 2:nd class introduced.
The first electric railway is used. It's a 750 m industrial line in Boxholm.
Bogie coaches built in Sweden. They are 16.6 m long.
The English-built ore line from Gällivare to the harbour in Luleň purchased by the State Railways.
The first electric engine is built by Asea, for a 3 km industrial line connecting to the mainline at Katrineholm. It's a very small two-axle engine.
The first train ferry connection started Helsingborg- Helsing°r. Cars beeing built to the Danish-German standard for international traffic.
The railway line Stockholm-Boden finished. For defence reasons it doesn't follow the coast were the towns are. The state later builds branches to most of them.
Djursholmsbanan, a commuter railway outside Stockholm becomes the first public transport electric railway in Sweden.
Train ferries Malmö-Copenhagen.
Restaurant cars introduced Uppsala-Gävle. Later the State Railways get them too.
Demand for engines increases so much that neither Swedish nor European companies can fulfill it and some has be imported from USA. These becomes the first compounds used by SJ.
Since then most engines are built in Sweden.
The ore railway Gällivare-Riksgränsen-Narvik is finished.
Stronger ore cars which load 35 tons are purchased.
SJ trials small electric engines near Stockholm. Voltages between 5 kV and 20 kV and frequencies between 15 Hz and 25 Hz are used.
Train ferries Trelleborg-Sassnitz
A diesel-electric railcar built by ASEA and Atlas Diesel tested by the State Railways.
The State Railways open their first electric stretch between Kiruna and Riksgränsen. 15 Hz and 16 kV is used.
The engines are 1'C+C1' of class O, and often used two for the heavy trains. Passenger engines are class P and 2'B2'.
2 German electrics (E70) purchased. SJ standard types is class Pb for passenger service, 2B+B2, class Od for freight, D and Oe, 1'C+C1' for iron ore service.
Air brakes introduced.
16 2/3 Hz and 16 kV is adapted as a standard.
Electrical heating of coaches starting to be used.
A single type electric 1'C1' is found to be sufficient for all types of services as class Ds for express train and as Dg with different gearing for freight train. Derivatives of this type continues to be built until 1971.
Stockholm-Gothenburg electrified.
The first battery powered switchers enters service.
Steel body coaches.
Stockholm-Malmö electrified.
Inlandsbanan finished.
The Swedish railways are at their largest with a total lenght of 16900 km.
Parliament decides to natinalize private railways. The process takes about 3 decades, with small ones purchased first and the larger ones operated under their own identities into the 1980's.
Of about 17400 km railways built, the state has built about 31%, all standard gauge. Some narrow gauge lines were converted to standard gauge after SJ purchased them, but SJ operated significant portions of 891 (3 foot) and 1067 (3 foot 6 inches foot) mm railways.
Trelleborg-Riksgränsen (2022 km) electrified.
Faster express trains are needed, and the class F, 1'Do1' enters service with a top speed of 135 km/h.
The last classes of steam engines are delivered, 12 narrow gauge engines 1943-50, 10 heavy freight engines in 1947 and 20 short haul passenger engines in 1952-53.
Class M, CoCo, a new class of powerful freight engines enters service.
Alvesta-Eslöv gets a maximum permitted speed of 120 km/h.
The State Railways purchase two large 3-axle diesels from England.
Electric Bo'Bo' express engines used on Stockholm- Gothenburg, travel time 4 hours.
The Swedish railways have a total length of 12800 km.
The last steam engine in regular service on the State Railways retired.
Several hundred steam engines put in reserve storage for the next 20 years and finally declared redundant in 1992, whereupon they were scrapped and sold off.
The Swedish railways have a total lenght of 9864 km.
[Many dates and facts from a publications by the Swedish Railways Museum]